Egypt arose in the 19th millennium BC emerging as one of the world’s first nation states. A birthplace of civilisation, ancient Egypt developed some of the earliest sciences of written works, farming and agriculture, ancient urbanisation, established religion with a central government. Great iconic monuments include the Giza Necropolis with its Great Sphinx, the ruins of Memphis, Thebes, Karnak, and the Valley of the Kings, reflecting this legacy and remaining a primary interest of archaeological study and a favorite subject worldwide.

Ancient Egyptian physicians, were aware of the spinal column. Much of the anatomic nomenclature terminology used today was derived from these ancient physicians’ perspective of the human body. For example, a derivative of the term “spinal column,” the “djet column,” was used in ancient Egypt. In this papyrus, 48 cases of trauma were reported, including six cases of spinal trauma. Unfortunately, the portion containing thoracic and lumbar spine trauma was missing. This papyrus reported vertebral dislocations (wenekh) and burst fractures (sehem). It also presented evidence in support of mechanisms of injury (i.e., falling on one’s head [axial loading] resulting in a burst fracture. The papyrus focused on the neurological consequences of spinal fractures, emphasizing that fracture-dislocations are associated with a poor prognosis.

Modern day Egypt has a GDP of about $307 Billion USD. Many new technologies are being developed in Egypt. It is fair to say that Egypt is in a period of consolidation and big steps forward progress and implementation. Recently Jordanian businesswoman Iman Mutlaq combined with the Egyptian government to develop the Egycomex (, the region’s first grains exchange. Egypt is the world’s largest importer of wheat, purchasing 10 million tonnes of grain each year from the global market. Egycomex will trade spotand futures for grains, mainly wheat, as well as gold and oil.